If the antagonist knows everything that the protagonist will think and do before the protagonist even knows himself, how can he be defeated?
I think the easier but less exciting ways are to either wait until he dies naturally, destroy the planet and everybody on it at the same time so that he cannot escape, or to somehow convince him to kill himself.
If we're thinking about the future as realistically as possible, then it is a set thing just like the past and present. No matter what you do in the present to change the future, whatever you just changed the future to is still the future that only happens once and was always going to be. Obviously, if you can see the future and try to change it, this would cause a paradox since the future you saw wasn't actually the future if you changed it. If you'd actually seen the future then you would've seen whatever you'd changed it to. So if our antagonist can actually see the future, then he has no choice but to do exactly what he knows he will do, otherwise he would be trapped in a never ending paradox. So, you could get them to do something that will get them killed to avoid paradox.
My favorite way though is to think about it like chess. Find a way to defeat him that he cannot counter even though he sees it coming. He's still human after all. Protag just needs to put enough constraints on him and barrage him with something unavoidable. In chess, the best players can anticipate your every move far enough into the future as to be effectively infinite, but they can still lose. You just exploit the rules of the game in such a way as to successively limit their options until they're captured or killed. (We'll forget about draws for this.) Protag must organize the environment with insurmountable boundaries to confine Antag to a limited space. Antag cannot counter this because he has to physically be somewhere, and you simply limit the space he's in. They know the boundaries exist, but to counter these boundaries after they exist, they'd have to sneak past you, hide within the boundaries, or move past the boundaries as they are being constructed. So to counter his counter, the space should be wide and open. You might even have other people constructing an insurmountable boundary around your insurmountable boundary. This could also be something like a large valley or canyon that he's herded into. Protag then must organize as many people as possible that support him and oppose Antag. After that, limit Antag's options and impose rules that he cannot avoid. Protag can have a constant search party looking for Antag, have people constantly be on the lookout. Overwhelm his ability to do anything about being seen and caught. Limit food, water, and shelter in the confined space so that he cannot stay in one place. At this point, you could starve him until he's too weak to move, and/or once he's found, have everybody surround him to reduce his moves even further. If you have to, you could set the place he's in on fire, or level the place with gunfire/magic, and force him out. Eventually, his space will be so limited that he cannot move. If he reveals himself, kill him while your goons hold him down. If he doesn't come out, sift through the wreckage until you find him and make sure he's dead. If he somehow evaded you, go back to setting up boundaries and start over.
Let me preface this whole post by saying that I'm only poking holes in your suggestion to point-out how ridiculous this "perfectly clairvoyant villain" premise is and not to discredit or mock your suggestions...
1. If the villain needs to be "beat", we can assume what they are doing means that they need to be stopped so waiting until they die is out of the question.
2. The villain would foresee the planet being destroyed and will either stop you or escape.
3. The villain would foresee the attempt at convincing them to kill himself and would prepare accordingly. Possible by killing himself but possibly not.
From the villain's perspective, this paradox would just be a faulty prediction on his part. If he foresees himself doing something he wouldn't want to do - such as a scenario that leads to his death - he would likely opt not to do that and accept his prediction as wrong.
To use the chess metaphor: if the villain knows with full certainty that he would lose the game should he play, he would choose not to play.
Going to your proposed scenario: the villain would know of the protagonists plan to corner him in before the protagonists can enact it. He would know of the trap before it is set or even conceived of and would then take actions to avoid or sabotage it.
You probably should have mentioned the point of this thread in the first post.
I jumped to the conclusion that this was one of those “I want to do this thing in a story but I’m not sure how to make it work” kind of threads.