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Worldbuilding: A Brief History of Castles in Europe

From the dawn of civilization, humanity has found itself in times of both growth and conflict. It is said that we began as hunter-gatherers within more tribal systems. With the emergence of agriculture, working the land to grow food has created the ability for people to settle down in places across the globe, founding villages, towns, and cities. From here, counties, duchies, and kingdoms made their entrance, creating systems of rule and governance for the time. With growth, comes opportunity for a region to grow in prosperity, wealth, and society.

However, some opportunities in this wild world of early humanity are more nefarious than others. Perhaps a rival kingdom seeks to conquer an enemy's land for its natural resources. Bands of thieves and raiders may endanger those living in the countryside, taking food and valuables. With an increasing number of threats, there was a need for defense and fortification to protect the holdings of the local ruler. ....