For my “writer self,” cracking (or clicking) open a new fantasy novel is one of the most exciting ways to spend my free time.
It’s also one of the most terrifying.
After all, I don’t really know what I’ll find inside, and encountering a badly-crafted story is more than disappointing. It’s downright painful.
I’m sure you could name many issues that hamper your literary enjoyment, but for me, one the biggest is subpar dialogue. I encounter it in books both traditionally and self-published. The story concept may unique, and the plot clever. The prose may even be compelling, well-paced, and active. Overall I’m intrigued…
Until the characters open their mouths.
Nothing makes me shut a book faster than stilted, on-the-nose dialogue from characters who all sound alike. I write my fair share, of course, and read plenty more as a consultant and editor. From both sides of the page, I know how tough it can be to get dialogue right.
And of course, it’s rare to fulfill your own craftsmanship expectations in early drafts. But sometimes, even in later drafts, we writers barely revise dialogue. Or worse, we revise only until it serves basic plot movement and some character development. Then we call it a day.
Why call it a day at serviceable, when great dialogue can be so memorable?
Recently I asked myself this question. For me, the answer was returning to some favorite fantasy novels to unpack why the dialogue was so compelling. So far my study has uncovered five principles I’ll be using in future revisions of my work:
1. Memorable dialogue is about more than plot and character.
In fact, it is rarely about them at all. It’s about theme. Readers love it when characters pause to reflect on humanity, the universe, or some big idea about life. This is the province of theme—which means determining your story’s theme early in the revision process makes dialogue rewrites much easier.
I call these thematic bits of dialogue “nuggets.” Though the world of the story may be vastly different than our own, nuggets provide an immediate bridge. Often, they are the primary place where characters reach out of their worlds to touch the readers’. Sprinkled carefully throughout the book, nuggets add depth and richness to the story.
This does not mean, however, that our characters just sit on their porches musing about life, or monologue in back alleys. It means that here and there, in unexpected moments, your characters share an observation on the larger issues of justice, courage, faith, power, or whatever thematic idea drives your story.
The best nuggets, I’ve noticed, are beguilingly off-handed.
2. Memorable dialogue serves the action rather than driving it.
Overall, rich and expansive dialogue is the province of novels. But visual storytelling—most often discussed in filmmaking circles—is still (arguably) the most powerful method for telling tales.
By visual storytelling, in this case, I don’t mean illustrations or a graphic novel. I mean prose that is vivid, telling the story through image and action rather than relying on talk to carry the plot.
Our words are only as powerful as our actions. This is as true in life as in fiction. What readers see in their minds’ eye, through described body language, physical action, or environmental detail, often creates more emotional impact than the words that characters speak.
For example, is a character furious at a friend’s betrayal? Let her clench her sword, white-knuckled, and dig her heels into parched soil as she poises for battle . . . rather than giving the “I’m angry! Let’s fight!” speech.
Let your characters’ talk enhance and deepen action, rather than driving it; otherwise, you’ll ending up with a “talking heads” novel. (Which sometimes work, but they’re terribly tricky!)
3. Memorable dialogue is rooted in strong characterization.
“Hold it,” you say. “Doesn’t dialogue aid my characterization?” For the reader, absolutely. But for the writer, dialogue is aided by strongly-drawn, three-dimensional characters.
When writing a novel a writer should create living people; people not characters. A character is a caricature. If a writer can make people live there may be no great characters in his book, but it is possible that his book will remain as a whole; as an entity; as a novel. If the people the writer is making talk of old masters; of music; of modern painting; of letters; or of science then they should talk of those subjects in the novel.
4. Memorable dialogue sounds like real talk but is not.
I first encountered this principle in screenwriting. Yes, what your characters say must sound like authentic conversation. But let’s face it: great dialogue is not conversation. It’s art.
While real conversation happens spontaneously, great dialogue has only an illusion of spontaneity. It needs to sound like real talk, but it also needs to be crafted for maximum reader impact.
Naturally, first drafts are riddled with the “hi’s” and “how are you’s” of mundane interaction. Characters’ conversations wander off-track, sometimes for pages. As you revise, shed everything unnecessary.
Why not open the conversation with a daring accusation instead? How about dropping an informational bombshell? Sometimes even just having one character answer the other with silence can transform a mundane conversation into a showstopper. Not only does this keep the action snapping, but it also leaves the audience starved for information . . . which keeps them turning pages
5. Memorable dialogue is enhanced by physical props.
George R.R. Martin does this brilliantly, and I suspect he learned it in his early days as a TV and film writer. Actors hate delivering lines without something in hand. Consequently, TV and film writers often include a prop that livens up the delivery of the dialogue.
Props keep characters from losing groundedness in the physical world. Have you ever read a long passage of dialogue, with no reference to the environment, only to wonder where the characters were, and why? Environment is a key story enhancer. Props—part and parcel of the scene’s environment—accentuate dialogue, in particular.
Props can also be great metaphors for what’s happening in the dialogue. Consider one dialogue-driven passage in Game of Thrones, where Ned Stark visits a member of Robert Baratheon’s court whom he does not entirely trust.
As the conversation unfolds, Ned is offered cold milk. When the milk arrives, Ned finds it so overly sweetened he can barely choke it down. That milk, as a prop, becomes a chilling metaphor for the syrupy lies he’s being fed in the conversation. He has no choice but to choke them down, too.
Overall, dialogue is one of the most powerful tools in a writer’s arsenal. Left unattended or underdeveloped, it can drive away an audience or disappoint them. Carefully crafted, it can draw them back to your story again and again.
I hope you find these five principles as helpful as I have. In the mean time, how do you handle dialogue revisions in your work? Have you found a game-changing technique or had a memorable experience (positive or negative)?
Which contemporary authors are the best at writing dialogue? What makes their dialogue so compelling? Please share below!
Lisa Walker England writes a weekly illustrated fantasy serial, blogs about the art of storytelling, and develops sequential multimedia properties with two artist friends.