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Vetronian Empire - Military Lands

Discussion in 'World Building' started by Aldarion, Dec 1, 2020.

  1. Aldarion

    Aldarion Inkling

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    This is the latest and, hopefully, final iteration of my calculations for Vetronian military lands. I haven't had time to do any serious worldbuilding in last few months, but still I figured I didn't want to waste time and so slowly studied Hungarian-Ottoman warfare and Hungarian military organization as an aside, while taking notes. As time went by, notes... accumulated. This is the result of that: military organization had been completely revamped, significantly increasing proportion of cavalry (and, especially, light cavalry). But again, since there is a lot of numberical stuff included (my precioussss), I would appreciate if somebody could run the numbers through to see whether there are mistakes.

    Plus, I have some stuff on 15th century militaries included here in notes (see also the quote after the main text), so if anyone is writing about that era, it might be of help - I hope.

    ----------------------
    HISTORY

    After disastrous Fomorian invasion, remains of the Empire had to be defended by a cash-strapped government. As a result, soldiers were assigned land, given to them from what remained of imperial estates worked by tennant farmers.

    ORIGINAL VALUES – NOTES

    Byzantine army:
    • modius: 2973 m2 on average
      • One modios of first-quality land was worth one gold coin, second-quality land was worth half a gold coin and third-quality land (pasture) was worth one third of a coin.
    • Peasant family = 30 modii = 90 000 m2; v2: 10 ha = 100 000 m2
      • 840: 8 000 000 pop = 1 360 000 households = 136 000 000 000 m2
        • 96 000 themata
          • 5% cataphracts = 4 800 = 10 274 688 000 m2
          • 15% light cavalry = 14 400 = 7 706 016 000 m2
          • 70% infantry = 67 200 = 9 989 280 000 m2
          • TOTAL: 27 969 984 000 m2 = 20,57% of arable lands
      • 1025: 12 000 000 pop = 2 040 000 peasant households = 204 000 000 000 m2
        • 200 000 themata
          • 5% cataphracts = 10 000 = 21 405 600 000 m2
          • 25% light cavalry = 50 000 = 26 757 000 000 m2
          • 70% infantry = 140 000 = 20 811 000 000 m2
          • TOTAL: 68 973 600 000 m2 = 33,81% of arable lands
          • OR
            • 2,5% cataphracts = 5 000 = 10 702 800 000 m2
            • 37,5% cavalry = 75 000 = 40 135 500 000 m2
            • 60% infantry = 120 000 = 17 838 000 000 m2
            • TOTAL: 68 676 300 000 m2 = 33,66% of arable lands
    • Light cavalry = 4 pounds of gold = 180 modii (?) = 535 140 m2; 1 lb = 133 785 m2
    • Cataphract = 16 pounds of gold (72 solidi per pound = 1 152 solidi) = 30 families = 720 modii (2 140 560 m2)
    • Thematic marines = 2 pounds of gold = 384 modii (9th century Byzantine)
    • Infantry = 50 modii (9th century Byzantine) – 148 650 m2
    • figures
      • infantry = 150 modii = 445 950 m2
      • marines = 432 modii = 1 284 336 m2
      • cavalry = 720 modii = 2 140 560 m2
    • gold (note: typical value is always pound higher than the legal minimum)
      • light cavalry = 4 lbs / 288 nomismata
      • marines = 2 lbs of gold
    English knights:
    Feudal Terminology
    • Virgate / knight's fee: 400 / 640 / 800 acres of arable land
      • 640 acres = 2 589 998 m2
    • Knight: 1 500 acres = 6 070 284 m2
    • Man at arms: 60 – 120 acres = 242 811 – 485 623 m2
    • v2: 30 marks per year / 234 g per mark = 7,02 kg per year = 21 pound of gold = 400 – 800 acres = 1 618 742 m2 – 3 237 485 m2 (average: 600 acres / 2 428 114 m2)
    • Peasant household (5 people): 120 000 m2 = 1 pound of gold
      • v2: peasant household = virgate: 30 acres = 121 405 m2 = 1 pound of gold
    • a hide: 120 acres = 485 623 m2
    • 15 – 30 peasant households to maintain one knightly household
      • 1 821 075 – 3 642 750 m2
    • note: a knight had retainers, support personnel and multiple mounts = knight + 2-3 mounted crossbowmen + squire + servants
    German army (15th century)
    Hungarian army (15th century)
    • acre: 4047 m2 of land
    • Peasant household: 5 people, 30 acres of land = 121 405 m2 (120 000 m2)
    • Mounted crossbowman = 1 per 20 plots; 1 per 10 plots in Transylvania
    • Light cavalryman = 1 per 10 plots; 1 per 20 plots in 1524
    • Man-at-arms = 1 per 36 plots = 4 370 580 m2
    • Light cavalry
      • 1 per 12 plots in 1464. = 1 456 860 m2
      • 1 per 10 plots in 1524. = 1 214 050 m2
    FINAL VALUES – MONETARY (MINIMUMS AND AVERAGES)
    • 1 lbs = 120 000 m2; average is always pound higher than minimum
    • annual income: 5% of land value = 5 solidi per year per 1 lb
    • Cataphract / man-at-arms: 21 lbs of gold – 2 520 000 m2
      • average: 22 lbs – 2 640 000 m2 (use 2 650 000 m2)
    • Mounted crossbowman: 8 lbs of gold – 960 000 m2
      • average: 9 lbs of gold – 1 080 000 m2 (use 1 000 000 m2)
    • Light cavalryman: 4 lbs of gold – 480 000 m2
      • average: 5 lbs of gold – 600 000 m2 (use 600 000 m2)
    • Marine: 2 lbs of gold – 240 000 m2
      • average: 3 lbs of gold – 360 000 m2 (use 350 000 m2)
    • Pikeman: 2 lbs of gold – 240 000 m2
      • average: 3 lbs of gold – 360 000 m2 (use 350 000 m2)
    • Crossbowman: 2 lbs of gold – 240 000 m2
      • average: 3 lbs of gold – 360 000 m2 (use 350 000 m2)
    • Light infantryman: 1 lb of gold – 120 000 m2
      • average: 1 lbs of gold – 150 000 m2 (use 150 000 m2)
    • total military lands: 27,115% of total arable land
    • peasant household: 5 people, 120 000 m2
      • total populace: 17 411 000
      • rural populace: 14 660 000
      • households: 2 932 000
      • arable lands: 351 840 000 000 m2
      • total military lands: 27,115% of arable lands (middle of Byzantine values)
      • military lands: 95 401 416 000 m2
    ESITAMES (NOTE: SUBJECT TO CHANGE – CHECK WHEN MILITARY ORGANIZATION IS FINALIZED)
    • turma (4 drungaries – 1 280 + 320 = 1 600 infantry, 1 920 + 480 = 2 400 cavalry; 4 000 total) – commander: dux
      • 640 pikemen – 224 000 000 m2
      • 640 crossbowmen – 224 000 000 m2
      • 320 infantry logistics – 48 000 000 m2
      • 960 heavy lancers – 2 544 000 000 m2
      • 960 mounted crossbowmen – 1 036 000 000 m2
      • 480 cavalry logistics – 288 000 000 m2
      • 800 border cavalry – 480 000 000 m2
      • 200 border cavalry logistics – 120 000 000 m2
      • TOTAL: 4 964 000 000 m2
    • military lands: 95 401 416 000 m2
    • total number: 19 turmae – 76 000 troops
      • 45 600 cavalry
      • 30 400 infantry
    • tax: 0,40 gold coins per person
      • 17 411 000 people
      • 6 964 400 coins = 31 339,8 kg of gold
      • army payroll = 42% of tax = 2 925 048 gold coins
     
    Gurkhal, skip.knox and S.T. Ockenner like this.
  2. Aldarion

    Aldarion Inkling

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    Below are some notes which may help understand the above:
    • Byzantine Empire in 1025 had 250 000 soliders, and could field two armies of 40 000 troops each while leaving behind enough troops to defend the home territory
      • 2/3 infantry, 1/3 cavalry (?)
      • some themes were cavalry-dominant, others were infantry-dominant
      • some themes were only cavalry, some were part-infantry and part cavalry
      • cavalry themes dominated on Cilician plain
      • total area of Empire: 1 675 000 km2; 12 000 000 people
        • 12 000 000 people = 10 000 000 peasants = 1 224 000 000 000 m2 arable
        • 250 000 troops = if light cavalry = 133 785 000 000 m2 = 11% of arable land
    • Hungarian army in 1516-18
      • grouping of 10 000 men
        • 6 000 cavalry
          • 3 000 heavy cavalry
          • 3 000 light cavalry
        • 4 000 infantry
          • 2 000 pikemen
          • 2 000 handgunners (use crossbowmen in my)
    FINAL VERSION
    • composition of field army
      • 60% cavalry (80% combat troops, 20% support)
        • 30% heavy cavalry (½ lancers, ½ crossbowmen)
        • 30% light cavalry (½ lancers, ½ archers)
      • 40% infantry (80% combat troops, 20% pioneers and craftsmen)
        • 20% pikemen
        • 20% crossbowmen with pollaxes
    • to this add light cavalry used as raiders (similar to hussars) (100% combat troops)
      • end result: 2:3 ratio of heavy:light cavalry
        • 3 heavy cavalry
        • 3 light cavalry
        • 2 border cavalry
        • 2 pikemen
        • 2 crossbowmen
        • total: 8 cavalry (67%), 4 infantry (33%)
          • 25% heavy cavalry
          • 42% light cavalry
          • 16,5% pikemen
          • 16,5% crossbowmen
    • number of horses per man
      • 3 horses for heavy cavalry (2 for soldier, 1 for squire)
      • 2 horses for light cavalry
      • 2 horses for border cavalry
      • 2 mules for pikemen
      • 2 mules for crossbowmen
    • heavy cavalry: 2 cavalrymen + 1 servant per tent
    • Middle Byzantine terminology
      • greek name – meaning – latin translation
      • strateia – enrollment into state – militia
    • unit names
      • contubernium – commander: biarchius
        • infantry: 8 soldiers, 2 non-combatants
          • 4 pikemen, 4 crossbowmen, 2 pages (noncombatant)
          • v2: 1 pavesar with pike, 4 armati with pollaxes, 4 crossbowmen, 1 page (nonc)
        • cavalry: 8 soldiers, 2 non-combatants (2 lances)
          • lance: 1 heavy cavalryman (lancer), 1 medium cavalryman (lancer – coutillier), 2 mounted crossbowmen, 1 page (noncombatant)
      • centuria (10 contubernia – 80 + 20) – commander: ordinarius
        • English: company
      • vexillum (2 centuria – 160 + 40 = 200) – commander: princeps
        • English: banner
      • drungus (2 vexillia – 320 + 80 = 400 infantry, 3 vexilia – 480 + 120 = 600 cavalry; 1 000 total) – commander: tribunus
      • turma (4 drungaries – 1 280 + 320 = 1 600 infantry, 1 920 + 480 = 2 400 cavalry; 4 000 total) – commander: dux
        • 640 pikemen
        • 640 crossbowmen
        • 320 infantry logistics
        • 960 heavy lancers
        • 960 mounted crossbowmen
        • 480 cavalry logistics
      • corpus (varies – minimum 2 turmae – 8 000 total, plus 10 independent light cavalry (cursarii) vexillia – 2 000 total; overall total: 10 000; 5 000 per turma) – commander: magister militum / comes
    • formation space
      • horseman: 3 ft wide 8 ft deep for small horses
    • central army (tagmata equivalent) – comitatus praesentalis / Palatini
      • 30 000 total – 6 turmae
        • 24 000 men battles (note: two Regiments of the Walls in Vetronia itself)
        • 6 000 men cursarii
    • field armies (themata equivalent) – comitatenses
    • border troops (akritai equivalent) – cursarii
    • militia (town militia)
      • only in defence of towns and cities
      • for every 25 000 men, 5 000 infantry and 300 cavalry can be fielded
    • formations of a corpus (2 turmae)
      • offensive:
        • center division
          • 1 280 pikemen
          • 640 crossbowmen flanking pikemen
          • 640 crossbowmen behind pikemen
        • wings (1 920 each)
          • 1 920 heavy cavalry
          • 1 920 light cavalry
        • scouts
          • 2 000 cursar cavalry
        • rear: wagon fort
    • calculate whether turma can form infantry square containing cavalry and baggage
    • size of camp (in Vetronian feet)
      • Maurice's Strategikon Book XII, Ch. 22, pg 158
      • Three Byzantine Treatises, pg 251
      • 45 square feet per infantryman
      • 90 square feet per cavalryman
      • 10 x 10 feet tent – 12,5 x 12,5 feet total space – 100 sq feet, 10 sq feet per soldier
        • 10 sq feet tent space, 35 sq feet baggage per soldier
      • 125 x 125 feet for infantry centuria (100 infantry) or 25 cavalry
      • 250 x 250 feet for cavalry centuria
      • organized in four equal quarters
      • 45 meters between the wall and the tents
      • 12 meters for main roads within the camp
    • calculation - turma
      • 640 pikemen – 28 800 ft2
      • 640 crossbowmen – 28 800 ft2
      • 320 infantry logistics – 14 400 ft2
      • 960 heavy lancers – 86 400 ft2
      • 960 mounted crossbowmen – 86 400 ft2
      • 480 cavalry logistics – 43 200 ft2
      • 800 border cavalry – 72 000 ft2
      • 200 border cavalry logistics – 18 000 ft2
      • TOTAL: 378 000 ft2 = 36 866 m2 = 192 x 192 m
      • With roads: 204 x 204 m
      • Walled area: 250 x 250 m = 100 - 200 wagons (?)
    • camps are used as assembly areas for thematic armies
    • no-command ranks:
      • tiro – recruit
      • pedes / equites – private
      • circitor – lowest NCO grade
    • pay
      • commanders of provinces: 5 – 10 lbs of gold per year (360 – 720 nomismata)
      • tourmarch: 30 nomismata
      • ordinary soldier: 9 – 12 nomismata + 6,5 nomismata in in-kind rations
      • new soldier: 3 nomismata + 6,5 nomismata in in-kind rations
      • normal civilian: 10 – 12 nomismata
      • NOTE: better calculations in "coinage"
    • average basket: 6,8 nomismata, substinence minimum: 3 nomismata
    • living expenses: 17 nomismata per family per year
    • military lands
      • see notes in document "military lands"
      • military units
        • central military: no lands, fully professional
        • provincial military: landed, paid, professional
        • city militias: volunteers, do military service only in defense of cities
      • border fortresses
        • large: garrisons 1 000 men (drungus – 600 cavalry, 400 infantry)
        • medium: garrisons 400 men (2 vexillia – 200 cavalry, 200 infantry)
        • small: garrisons 200 men (2 centuria – 100 cavalry, 100 infantry)
      • gold coins per person per year in taxes
        • Hungary: 4 000 000 people, 650 000 gold florins = 0,15
          • peasants households were paying 2 – 4 florins per year to their lords; income was not taxed
            • 300 000 households = 600 000 – 1 200 000 florins
            • total tax = 1 250 000 – 1 850 000 florins = 0,31 – 0,46
          • 1516 Croatia: 75 denarii per peasant plot, 6 800 plots, 19 000 florins = 0,56
            • only 1 860 florins out of 19 000 reached the treasurer
        • Byzantium:
          • 775: 7 000 000 people
            • 1 600 000 nomismata taxes = 0,23
            • 200 000 nomismata trade = 0,03
            • expenses:
              • 600 000 nomismata army payroll (33%)
              • 600 000 nomismata other military costs (33%)
              • 400 000 bureocracy
              • 100 000 imperial largess
          • 850: 8 000 000 people
            • 2 900 000 nomismata taxes = 0,36
            • 400 000 nomismata trade = 0,05
            • expenses:
              • 1 400 000 nomismata army payroll (42%)
              • 800 000 nomismata other military costs (27%)
              • 500 000 nomismata bureocracy
              • 100 000 nomismata imperial largess
          • 1025: 12 000 000 people, 5 900 000 nomismata = 0,49
            • 5 900 000 nomismata = 5 – 8% of national income
              • 72 000 000 nomismata GDP
        • final
          • taxes: 0,40 gold coins per person (Hungary + Byzantium) – 4,5 g per coin
     
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